The municipality of Lebane is located in the southeastern part of central Serbia (41°45’N 21°45’E) in the Jablanica Administrative District. The territory of the municipality covers the basin of the river Jablanica, a left tributary of the South Morava and a part of the fertile Leskovac basin. Spatially, the territory resembles of an equilateral triangle that borders the city of Leskovac, the municipalities of Medveđa and Bojnik and small line with the autonomous province of Kosovo and Metohija. The municipality of Lebane covers an area of 337 km2 divided into 39 settlements with total of 18,119 inhabitants. Main institutions and offices of the municipality are located in the town of Lebane.
Considering travel directions and roads, the municipality is on a favorable geographical position. Road that passes through the municipality is 39 IB in the west-east direction (Pirot – Babušnica – Vlasotince – Leskovac – Lebane – Medveđa – Priština – Peć – the border crossing Čakor to The Republic of Montenegro) that connects to the pan-European corridor X, the E-75 state road IA1 order. The center of the Jablanica administrative district, city of Leskovac is 20 km away to the northeast, the capital of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade is 292 km to the north. The nearest international airport, Constantine the Great and the city of Niš is 65 km away from Lebane. The fact is that some foreign major cities are nearer than Belgrade, like Skopje, the capital of North Macedonia, 180 km away, or the capital of Bulgaria, Sofia, 225 km away from Lebane.
Relief of the municipality of Lebane consists of the hilly-mountainous and lowland areas. These two units differ from each other in terms of geomorphology, climate, hydrology and biogeography, with the distinct border between them. The relief is varied with following: Bošnjačko polje (up to about 300 masl) in the eastern part, Radan mountain and Sveti Petar peak (1149 masl) in the western part, Goljak mountain (1181 masl) in the southern part of the area, with two gorge valleys of Jablanica and Šumanka rivers.